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Appendix: Signs and symptoms of possible autism

The signs and symptoms in tables 1 to 3 are a combination of delay in expected features of development and the presence of unusual features, and are intended to alert professionals to the possibility of autism in a child or young person about whom concerns have been raised. They are not intended to be used alone, but to help professionals recognise a pattern of impairments in reciprocal social and communication skills, together with unusual restricted and repetitive behaviours.

Table 1 Signs and symptoms of possible autism in preschool children (or equivalent mental age)

Social interaction and reciprocal communication behaviours

Spoken language

  • Language delay (in babble or words, for example less than ten words by the age of 2 years).
  • Regression in or loss of use of speech.
  • Spoken language (if present) may include unusual:
  • non-speech like vocalisations
  • odd or flat intonation
  • frequent repetition of set words and phrases ('echolalia')
  • reference to self by name or 'you' or 'she/he' beyond 3 years.
  • Reduced and/or infrequent use of language for communication, for example use of single words although able to speak in sentences.

Responding to others

  • Absent or delayed response to name being called, despite normal hearing.
  • Reduced or absent responsive social smiling.
  • Reduced or absent responsiveness to other people's facial expressions or feelings.
  • Unusually negative response to the requests of others (demand avoidant behaviour).
  • Rejection of cuddles initiated by parent or carer, although may initiate cuddles themselves.

Interacting with others

  • Reduced or absent awareness of personal space, or unusually intolerant of people entering their personal space.
  • Reduced or absent social interest in others, including children of his/her own age – may reject others; if interested in others, may approach others inappropriately, seeming to be aggressive or disruptive.
  • Reduced or absent imitation of others' actions.
  • Reduced or absent initiation of social play with others, plays alone.
  • Reduced or absent enjoyment of situations that most children like, for example, birthday parties.
  • Reduced or absent sharing of enjoyment.

Eye contact, pointing and other gestures

  • Reduced or absent use of gestures and facial expressions to communicate (although may place adult's hand on objects).
  • Reduced and poorly integrated gestures, facial expressions, body orientation, eye contact (looking at people's eyes when speaking) and speech used in social communication.
  • Reduced or absent social use of eye contact, assuming adequate vision.
  • Reduced or absent joint attention shown by lack of:
  • gaze switching
  • following a point (looking where the other person points to – may look at hand)
  • using pointing at or showing objects to share interest.

Ideas and imagination

  • Reduced or absent imagination and variety of pretend play.

Unusual or restricted interests and/or rigid and repetitive behaviours

  • Repetitive 'stereotypical' movements such as hand flapping, body rocking while standing, spinning, finger flicking.
  • Repetitive or stereotyped play, for example opening and closing doors.
  • Over-focused or unusual interests.
  • Excessive insistence on following own agenda.
  • Extremes of emotional reactivity to change or new situations, insistence on things being 'the same'.
  • Over or under reaction to sensory stimuli, for example textures, sounds, smells.
  • Excessive reaction to taste, smell, texture or appearance of food or extreme food fads.

Table 2 Signs and symptoms of possible autism in primary school children (aged 5 to 11years or equivalent mental age)

Social interaction and reciprocal communication behaviours

Spoken language

  • Spoken language may be unusual in several ways:
  • very limited use
  • monotonous tone
  • repetitive speech, frequent use of stereotyped (learnt) phrases, content dominated by excessive information on topics of own interest
  • talking 'at' others rather than sharing a two-way conversation
  • responses to others can seem rude or inappropriate.

Responding to others

  • Reduced or absent response to other people's facial expression or feelings.
  • Reduced or delayed response to name being called, despite normal hearing.
  • Subtle difficulties in understanding other's intentions; may take things literally and misunderstand sarcasm or metaphor.
  • Unusually negative response to the requests of others (demand avoidant behaviour).

Interacting with others

  • Reduced or absent awareness of personal space, or unusually intolerant of people entering their personal space.
  • Reduced or absent social interest in people, including children of his/her own age – may reject others; if interested in others, may approach others inappropriately, seeming to be aggressive or disruptive.
  • Reduced or absent greeting and farewell behaviours.
  • Reduced or absent awareness of socially expected behaviour.
  • Reduced or absent ability to share in the social play or ideas of others, plays alone.
  • Unable to adapt style of communication to social situations, for example may be overly formal or inappropriately familiar.
  • Reduced or absent enjoyment of situations that most children like.

Eye contact, pointing and other gestures

  • Reduced and poorly integrated gestures, facial expressions and body orientation, eye contact (looking at people's eyes when speaking) and speech used in social communication.
  • Reduced or absent social use of eye contact, assuming adequate vision.
  • Reduced or absent joint attention shown by lack of:
  • gaze switching
  • following a point (looking where the other person points to – may look at hand)
  • using pointing at or showing objects to share interest.

Ideas and imagination

  • Reduced or absent flexible imaginative play or creativity, although scenes seen on visual media (for example, television) may be re-enacted.
  • Makes comments without awareness of social niceties or hierarchies.

Unusual or restricted interests and/or rigid and repetitive behaviours

  • Repetitive 'stereotypical' movements such as hand flapping, body rocking while standing, spinning, finger flicking.
  • Play repetitive and oriented towards objects rather than people.
  • Over-focused or unusual interests.
  • Rigid expectation that other children should adhere to rules of play.
  • Excessive insistence on following own agenda.
  • Extremes of emotional reactivity that are excessive for the circumstances.
  • Strong preferences for familiar routines and things being 'just right'.
  • Dislike of change, which often leads to anxiety or other forms of distress (including aggression).
  • Over or under reaction to sensory stimuli, for example textures, sounds, smells.
  • Excessive reaction to taste, smell, texture or appearance of food or extreme food fads.

Other factors that may support a concern about autism

  • Unusual profile of skills or deficits (for example, social or motor coordination skills poorly developed, while particular areas of knowledge, reading or vocabulary skills are advanced for chronological or mental age).
  • Social and emotional development more immature than other areas of development, excessive trusting (naivety), lack of common sense, less independent than peers.

Table 3 Signs and symptoms of possible autism in secondary school children (older than 11years or equivalent mental age)

Social interaction and reciprocal communication behaviours

Spoken language

  • Spoken language may be unusual in several ways:
  • very limited use
  • monotonous tone
  • repetitive speech, frequent use of stereotyped (learnt) phrases, content dominated by excessive information on topics of own interest
  • talking 'at' others rather than sharing a two-way conversation
  • responses to others can seem rude or inappropriate.

Interacting with others

  • Reduced or absent awareness of personal space, or unusually intolerant of people entering their personal space.
  • Long-standing difficulties in reciprocal social communication and interaction: few close friends or reciprocal relationships.
  • Reduced or absent understanding of friendship; often an unsuccessful desire to have friends (although may find it easier with adults or younger children).
  • Social isolation and apparent preference for aloneness.
  • Reduced or absent greeting and farewell behaviours.
  • Lack of awareness and understanding of socially expected behaviour.
  • Problems losing at games, turn-taking and understanding 'changing the rules'.
  • May appear unaware or uninterested in what other young people his or her age are interested in.
  • Unable to adapt style of communication to social situations, for example may be overly formal or inappropriately familiar.
  • Subtle difficulties in understanding other's intentions; may take things literally and misunderstand sarcasm or metaphor.
  • Makes comments without awareness of social niceties or hierarchies.
  • Unusually negative response to the requests of others (demand avoidant behaviour).

Eye contact, pointing and other gestures

  • Poorly integrated gestures, facial expressions, body orientation, eye contact (looking at people's eyes when speaking) assuming adequate vision, and spoken language used in social communication.

Ideas and imagination

  • History of a lack of flexible social imaginative play and creativity, although scenes seen on visual media (for example, television) may be re-enacted.

Unusual or restricted interests and/or rigid and repetitive behaviours

  • Repetitive 'stereotypical' movements such as hand flapping, body rocking while standing, spinning, finger flicking.
  • Preference for highly specific interests or hobbies.
  • A strong adherence to rules or fairness that leads to argument.
  • Highly repetitive behaviours or rituals that negatively affect the young person's daily activities.
  • Excessive emotional distress at what seems trivial to others, for example change in routine.
  • Dislike of change, which often leads to anxiety or other forms of distress including aggression.
  • Over or under reaction to sensory stimuli, for example textures, sounds, smells.
  • Excessive reaction to taste, smell, texture or appearance of food and/or extreme food fads.

Other factors that may support a concern about autism

  • Unusual profile of skills and deficits (for example, social or motor coordination skills poorly developed, while particular areas of knowledge, reading or vocabulary skills are advanced for chronological or mental age).
  • Social and emotional development more immature than other areas of development, excessive trusting (naivety), lack of common sense, less independent than peers.

ISBN: 978-1-4731-1788-4


  1. Table 4 Factors associated with an increased prevalence of autism
    • A sibling with autism
    • Birth defects associated with central nervous system malformation and/or dysfunction, including cerebral

palsy

Gestational age less than 35 weeks

Parental schizophrenia-like psychosis or affective disorder

Maternal use of sodium valproate in pregnancy

A learning (intellectual disability)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Neonatal encephalopathy or epileptic encephalopathy, including infantile spasms

Chromosomal disorders such as Down’s syndrome

Genetic disorders such as fragile X

Muscular dystrophy

Neurofibromatosis

Tuberous sclerosis


3 CCAA Sponsors Autism Art Exhibit in Salisbury

Art and Autism - Salisbury Library- May 3-31, 2018

Gallery 4

FullSizeRender


Painting by Jackie Russ


watch


http://www.channel4.com/programmes/are-you-autistic



03.02.17 Congratulations to 3 Counties for winning the 2017 Health and Social Care Award!

http://www.ghp-magazine.com/2017-3-counties-counselling-and-autism-assessment

As of 20/01/17 3 Counties Counselling and Autism Assessment is a registered BUPA ConsultantProvider

First Post

3 Counties Counselling & Autism Assessment

01725 513 832 or visit www.3ccaa.co.uk

Beth Jacobs

BS Ed, MA Ed

Dr Sarah Taylor

MBBCh, MRCPsch


The Hall, 4 New Street, Salisbury City Centre.

At 3CCAA, we are able to provide a high-level, caring counselling service for adolescents and adults, either individually, as couples or family groups. Assessors who are professionally qualified in bothAutism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2) and Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R) provide our AutismAssessments. We will take self-referrals for children from as young as 3 years of age for this assessment process.

Our speciality that sets us apart from many other mental health services is our focus on complex mental heath problems and clinic diagnosis of Autism.


3 Counties Counselling and Autism Assessment has been nominated for The 2016 Social Care Award!

October 24, 1016

This email is formal notification that 3 Counties Counselling and Autism Assessment has received a nomination in the 2017 Social Care Awards, sponsored by the Australian Healthcare & Hospitals Association (http://ahha.asn.au/).


The 2017 Social Care Awards gives recognition to the individuals, teams and companies responsible for showing the highest level of care, compassion and courage in the most important, yet challenging occupations.


Our voting form is still live on the website so please feel free to cast a vote of your own, and don’t forget, we also accept self-nominations:


http://www.ghp-magazine.com/2016-2017-social-care-awards

Global Health & Pharma

W: www.ghp-magazine.com

T: +44 (0) 203 725 6847

A: Floor 1, Suite F, The Maltsters, 1-2 Wetmore Rd, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire, DE14 1LS


Art work by J Russ copyright 2016




jackie5




3 Counties Counselling and Autism Assessment is now expanding to London!


Today’s featured post by is3 Counties Counselling and Autism Assessment.

At 3CCAA, we are able to provide a high-level caring counselling service for adolescents and adults, either individually, as couples or family groups.
Whilst our specialty is in helping people deal with modern life and the challenges that this may bring to ones’ mental health, we also offer more general counselling services.

Additionally, Clinical Assessors who are professionally qualified in both Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2) and Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R) provide our Autism Assessment. We will take children from as young as 3 years of age for this assessment process.

About3 Counties Counselling and Autism Assessment

The founder, lead Counsellor and Autism Assessor of 3 Counties Counselling and Autism Assessment is Beth Jacobs. In the semi-rural towns and villages of southwest England there are relatively few services providing general Counselling, and there is a particular and very urgent need for a service providing mental health counselling and most especially Autism Assessment services. To compliment the currently stretched NHS services, Beth decided to open this practice.

Usual Counselling and Assessment Location

We will provide services in your home at your convenience or anywhere in the UK or European Union.

Or our consultations and assessments are undertaken in a comfortable office setting in central Salisbury.
Room 101, The Hall, 4 New Street, Salisbury, SP1 2PH
This location is next-door to a multi-storey car park, within a couple of minutes walk from most city-centre bus stops, and less than 15 min walk from Salisbury railway station
Or at Wings Counselling, located in the Abbey Park Industrial Estate on the outskirts of Romsey, just north of Southampton. (For sat nav use the postcode of Wings is SO51 9AQ)


Additional Services

3CCAA ties its services to every individual client in a bespoke manner, and we will endeavor to provide the following services that are complimentary to autism and other mental health conditions;

Clinical Psychiatric Assessment
Special Education Needs (SEN) Services
Speech and Language Therapy Services
Occupational Therapy Services

Contact

We can be contacted at info@3ccaa.co.uk or by telephone
t: 01725 513832 (preferred) or
m: 07767 329624 both telephone lines have voice-mail services
Correspondence Address
29 Elmfield Close, Woodfalls, Salisbury, Wiltshire, SP5 2BF

*Featured Article

http://www.kensingtonmums.co.uk/kmblog/index.php/archives/14959


Posted November 6, 2016


Beth Jacobs from 3 Counties took callers questions live on BBC Radio Solent !


Listen live


http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p04bl

3 Counties Counselling & Autism Assessment 2018